Fire hazards and prevention in the hottest petroch

2022-08-22
  • Detail

Fire hazards and prevention in petrochemical production

raw materials, intermediates and even products used in the production of petrochemical enterprises are flammable, explosive and corrosive substances. Most of the production is completed through chemical reaction and material transportation under high temperature, high pressure, high speed, toxicity, corrosion and other harsh conditions. The process operation has strong continuity, and explosive mixtures are easy to form in the process pipelines and reactors, while there are many ignition sources in the production area, It has great fire and explosion risks. Petrochemical enterprises have their own production and equipment characteristics, which determine the existence of unique fire hazards. It is an important part of the safety work of petrochemical enterprises to analyze the unique fire hazards of petrochemical enterprises and take corresponding preventive measures. Source: examination

1 fire hazard collector dispersion unique to petrochemical enterprises

(1) there are many kinds of items with complex states. There are more than 4million kinds of materials involved in the production of petrochemical enterprises, most of which have inflammable and explosive characteristics, and the state of materials in the production process is complex, and the mixture of gaseous, liquid, solid and different states may exist. Most materials are under the reaction conditions of high temperature and high pressure, as well as the dynamic change process of heat or mass transfer, So that petrochemical production has greater fire hazards

(2) the layout of production equipment is compact. The production equipment of petrochemical enterprises are arranged in order according to their functions and process operation requirements. The equipment layout is extremely tight, and the equipment pipelines, valves, instruments, machines, pumps, towers, furnaces, etc. on the device are basically arranged in a three-dimensional staggered manner. Due to the compact arrangement and mutual connection of production equipment, once a production equipment catches fire, it is very easy to cause chain fire or explosion

(3) the three-dimensional layout of the building form is prone to three-dimensional fire. In order to adapt to the characteristics of compact and interconnected production equipment, the building forms of petrochemical enterprises are mainly frame structure and large-span, high-rise plant structure. Especially, frame structure is widely used. The production equipment in the framework is densely arranged and is arranged in a three-dimensional manner, which determines that the fire in petrochemical enterprises is easy to develop into a three-dimensional fire that expands rapidly from top to bottom, left to right. Examination forum

(4) there are many process control parameters, which are out of control and easy to cause fire or explosion. Most petrochemical production is required to be carried out within a certain temperature and pressure range, some under high temperature and pressure, and some under low temperature and high vacuum. For example, in the production process of cracking light diesel oil to produce olefins and then to produce polyolefins, the cracking temperature of light diesel oil in the cracking furnace is 800 ℃, the cracking gas should be separated at -96 ℃, and the olefin gas with purity of 99.99% is polymerized under the pressure of 294mpa to produce olefins. The parameters controlled in petrochemical production are mainly flow, temperature, pressure, material flow rate and residence time in the equipment. If there is one parameter, no matter how good the equipment is, it can not guarantee that it will never fail out of control, which will lead to the risk of fire or explosion. Therefore, in the process of petrochemical production, the requirements for process parameters are extremely stringent

(5) operation errors and illegal hot work of employees. Many employees fail to receive fire safety training in time, do not understand the characteristics of production materials, and are not familiar with the operating procedures and precautions. It is very easy to have illegal hot work or operational errors, and do not know the use of fire-fighting facilities, fire fighting methods and escape methods after the accident, which is very easy to cause fire accidents

2 preventive measures for special fire hazards in petrochemical enterprises

2.1 strictly implement the preventive measures for hot work, and achieve the "eight precautions"

(1) disassembly and removal. If possible, remove the equipment, pipes and accessories that can be removed from the main body and moved to a safe place for hot work in the fire ban area, and then install them back after the hot work

(2) isolation and covering. Effectively isolate the hot work equipment, pipelines and their accessories and the related operating system. 5 Interior design: the interior is characterized by hand-made leather decoration and carbon fiber wings extending to the full height of the instrument panel, such as adding blind plates, adding heads or removing a pipe to reduce the cost, so as to isolate inflammable and explosive materials and medium gases from entering the hot work site

(3) clean up the site. Before hot work, inflammables and explosives around the hot work point should be transferred to a safe place. The site "this kind of wood plastic composite material is not only more durable than wood, it should be cleaned up

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI